Never before the Iranian 1979 revolution did the Shiite leadership gain as much authority. Although sectarian identities played a role in the unfolding of events of the Syrian Civil War, the importance of tribal and kinship relationships should not be underestimated, as they can be used to obtain and maintain power and loyalty. { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654156' }}, [23] This pattern of sectarianism prevailed throughout the Iranian history. if(!isPlusPopupShown()) [2][3][4] While religious identity is salient in the Middle East and has contributed to and intensified conflicts across the region, it is the politicization and mobilization of popular sentiments around certain identity markers ("sectarianization") that explains the extent and upsurge of sectarian violence in the Middle East. Religious people: followers of religious groups. }, This leads to hostility amongst the involved parties and takes place internally but also externally. Historically, some Catholic countries once persecuted Protestants as heretics. "[128] As such, during both Ottoman rule and later during the French Mandate, religious identities were deliberately mobilized for political and social reasons. Sunni Muslims in the Kalutara district are split in two different sub groups. [26] The establishment of Shiism as an official government ideology opened the doors for clergies to benefit from new cultural, political and religious rights which were denied prior to the Safavid ruling. ga('create', 'UA-31379-3',{cookieDomain:'dictionary.cambridge.org',siteSpeedSampleRate: 10}); { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_300x250' }}, [129], During the three decades following independence from the French Mandate, "various internal tensions inherent to the Lebanese system and multiple regional developments collectively contributed to the breakdown of governmental authority and the outbreak of civil strife in 1975”. [95][100][98] The 2000 USS Cole bombing resulted in US military operations on Yemen's soil. }; [42] Soleimani was responsible for strengthening Iran's ties with foreign powers such as Hezbollah in Lebanon, Syria's al-Assad and Shia militia groups in Iraq. With the establishment of the Islamic Republic of Iran sectarian discourses arose in the Middle-East as the Iranian religious regime has attempted and in some cases succeeded to spread its religious and political ideas in the region. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [300, 250] }}, Another word for sectarianism. {code: 'ad_btmslot_a', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_btmslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/btmslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, window.__tcfapi('addEventListener', 2, function(tcData, success) { The failure of the Rebellion of 1798, which sought to unite Protestants and Catholics for an independent Ireland, helped cause more sectarian violence in the island, most infamously the Scullabogue Barn massacre, in which Protestants were burned alive in County Wexford. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_Billboard' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '194852', size: [300, 250] }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387233' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [300, 600] }}, dfpSlots['topslot_a'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/topslot', [], 'ad_topslot_a').defineSizeMapping(mapping_topslot_a).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'top').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); iasLog("exclusion label : wprod"); ‘the city's traditional sectarian divide’. Cambridge Dictionary +Plus Excessive attachment to a particular sect or party, especially in religion. Sometimes a group that is under economic or political pressure will kill or attack members of another group which it regards as responsible for its own decline. However, it is noteworthy to mention that different sects did not fight the others out of religious motives, nor did Ibrahim Pasha aim to disrupt society among communal lines. [19] Among the culprits blamed for the killing are Al Qaeda working "with local sectarian groups" to kill what they perceive as Shi'a apostates.[19]. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [160, 600] }}, name: "idl_env", { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, } His usage of Shia martyrdom led to the creation of a national consensus. [107][108] In addition, the Armed Forces of Yemen used Salafists as mercenaries to fight against Houthis. In March 1989, Prime Minister (and Acting President) General Michel Aoun launched a “liberation war” against the Syrian army with the backing of the PLO and Iraqi president Saddam Hussein. Sectarianism is a noun by form. "[68], Historically, divisions in Yemen along religious lines (sects) are less intense than those in Pakistan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Bahrain. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, Therefore, efforts were made to undermine the Iranian revolution by labeling it as a Shi’a conspiracy to corrupt the Sunni Islamic tradition. [122], In January 2016, Saudi Arabia executed the prominent Saudi Shia cleric Nimr al-Nimr. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971081', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, /sekˈteriənɪzəm/. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776130', position: 'btf' }}, var pbMobileHrSlots = [ { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [120, 600] }}, Yemen is geographically not in proximity of the so-called Shia Crescent. [74][75] It divided the Yemen Vilayet into an Ottoman controlled section and an Ottoman-Zaydi controlled section. Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt ruled Syria between 1831 and 1840. [78][79][84][85] In Yemen however, President Abdullah al-Sallal (a Zaydi) sidelined his vice-president Abdurrahman al-Baidani (a Shaffi'i) for not being a member of the Zaydi sect. name: "pubCommonId", In some areas, religious sectarians (for example Protestant and Catholic Christians) now exist peacefully side by side for the most part, although these differences have resulted in violence, death, and outright warfare as recently as the 1990s. [112], The Saudi government has often been viewed as an active oppressor of Shia Muslims because of the funding of the Wahabbi ideology which denounces the Shia faith. Boggle gives you 3 minutes to find as many words (3 letters or more) as you can in a grid of 16 letters. gdpr: { Classes of their privileges Christians were killed in the Definitions.net dictionary Spain, the area some... An instrument, Iran 's first supreme-leader, Ayatollah Khomeini called for the violent conflict between Buddhist sects Japan... 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