Developer Ethics. Theo Schlossnagle, CEO of Circonus, spoke about professional ethics for software developers at QCon London 2018. At university I learned how to ask questions, even the hard ones, and be comfortable with questions I couldn’t answer yet. There are certain soap dispensers in airports that are automatic, that detect when your hand is under it unless you’re African-American, because then it doesn’t see your hand. And if So, What Is It? Duolingo definitely grabs users by the lapels to meet their daily quota and maintain performance streaks. But ethics are driven not by punishment, but by mutual societal benefit. Extract of sample "Ethical Dilemmas in Project Software Development… Reporting and research in recent years illustrates how bias within software systems can perpetuate systemic racism against specific populations, which creates lost opportunity, worsens medical care and increases rates of incarceration. Who does this affect? InfoQ Homepage Data access controls and logging mechanisms are enabled at software implementation time. In this article, author discusses the importance of Relevancy Score for developing Search Engine solutions and how to calculate relevancy score using Elasticsearch's similarity module. PUBLIC. We build software to make human lives better. By contrast, TikTok entices users to stay with an essentially limitless buffet of consumable media. As a self-described "bridge builder," her passion lies in helping those in traditional software development … Law, science, and engineering offer three distinct approaches to logical thinking. Yury Niño Roa explores how emerging paradigms can use Chaos Engineering to manage the pains in the path toward providing a solution, showing how Chaos Engineering can benefit from AI. The Software Engineering Ethics … According to crime statistics from the FBI, knives are consistently used to kill people far more often than rifles are used. There are other consequences, and you might disenfranchise a minority if you don’t train it on a diverse set of human beings. The question is what your mental model is for making yourself answer those questions instead of just avoiding them and pretending they don’t exist. Instead, ensure data protection is a feature included in the software design, inherently protecting against unauthorized access. This article gives an overview of professional ethics as applied to computer programming and software development, in particular the ethical guidelines that developers are expected to follow and apply when … Just asking the question of how is my code going to be used by humans? "If this information was encrypted, it would not have been so easy to use and valuable to distribute," Morris said. Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice (Version 5.2) as recommended by the ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Task Force on Software Engineering Ethics and Professional Practices and jointly … Schlossnagle: I think that software developers have come a long way, and they try to think about security as they develop code now. Allowed html: a,b,br,blockquote,i,li,pre,u,ul,p, by Development ethics considers major value question s and choices implied in processes of societal and global development – economic, social, and political develo pment. The first principle of software ethics requires a commitment to not shipping bad code. What I want people to do is to ask the questions, and have that as part of their software development cycle. You … Developers -- tasked with creating a functional, user-friendly product -- will view data access restrictions as the responsibility of another team. Thank you for participating in the discussion. However,  they’re not asking themselves, what are the ethical consequences of this? Schlossnagle: It’s highly dependent on what they do. This ethical issue is a dilemma for developers in every kind of business -- not just the social media giants who make the news. Bias often enters the system undetected -- Lentz compares bias to a virus. Some tools we create can have clear dual-purpose for good and evil -- knives and guns being the obvious candidates -- and it is up to society to understand the consequences and police this accordingly (for example, here in the UK under-18s cannot legally buy knives)However, the consequences of some actions/tools are less obvious, and here transparency and increasing awareness are useful techniques. Software can only learn from the training it is given. A lot of this stems from the ethical guidelines that I (or developers that inspire me) try to follow, and have followed in the past 20 years as a software developer. ", by Is your profile up-to-date? Schlossnagle: They can encourage the ad hoc addition of ethical questioning into their development process. Software Development 12 ethical dilemmas gnawing at developers today As software takes over more of our lives, the ethical ramifications of decisions made by programmers only become greater In particular, software … Ethics and Software Development. These kinds of concerns galvanized some rich discussion at Vidyo, which decided not to offer a free service tier. Striking an ethical balance between products consumers love and products that hijack their attention is more an art than a science. The organization should then follow up and independently identify if the use case is in breach of privacy, legal or ethical policies. Intellectual Property. Note: If updating/changing your email, a validation request will be sent, Sign Up for QCon Plus Spring 2021 Updates. Privacy Notice, Terms And Conditions, Cookie Policy. Software can profile users and predict behaviors at a scary level of detail. Developers face a hard decision regarding personal data and software design. Daniel Bryant Panelists shared their experience about it, analyzing the impact of microservices, challenges to deal with operational complexity, and alternatives. InfoQ have previously conducted a podcast with Theo Schlossnagle on Software Ethics and the Presence of Doing Good, and also interviewed him about Better Engineering via Better Discourse. One approach is to identify the customer journey of software users, map user stories and create unit tests t… Developers don't follow news on the latest legislative actions in the jurisdictions where customers use their software, Mackey pointed out, but the business must ensure they're informed. Michele Sliger has extensive experience in agile software development, having worked in both XP and Scrum teams before becoming a consultant. We are the ultimate consumers of software. The GitHub master branch is no more. In the fast-growing and profoundly aggressive innovation industry, software … MANAGEMENT - Software engineering managers and leaders shall subscribe to and promote an ethical approach to the management of software development and maintenance. Amazon's sustainability initiatives: Half empty or half full? Codes of ethics in the context of software development lack practical applicability, as they cannot solve emerging conflicts of values. Application security is growing in importance as software plays a larger role in our online and offline environments. InfoQ: What makes ethics important for software developers? Why Software Developers Should Take Ethics into Consideration, I consent to InfoQ.com handling my data as explained in this, By subscribing to this email, we may send you content based on your previous topic interests. Developers shoould try to answer these questions, and also be comfortable with questions they can’t answer yet. Technology can amplify existing biases. 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There is an ethical concern about the role of digital platforms, such as social media. View an example. To address this ethical responsibility for customer safety, developers need education, but typically only cybersecurity-specific classes address these topics. Everyone in the industry should be aware of social and ethical issues in software development. "The emphasis is almost entirely on getting a product out to market," said Randolph Morris, CEO of Bit Developers, a software development consultancy. Earlier this year, several Scrum experts got together to craft a Code of Ethics … Once a software product is publicly available, the focus shifts to new features and performance optimization, so security continues to have minimal prominence. This means having the foresight to imagine how end users will use code in such a way that software creators will not need top create breaking changes in later versions. Developers should be aware of the entire context of the project they are working on, not just the module they need to complete. For example, in the book, Race After Technology, Ruha Benjamin raised some concerns about a case where developers failed to include Black people's voices in training AI speech recognition algorithms, under the belief that fewer Black people would use the app. A round-up of last week’s content on InfoQ sent out every Tuesday. Wes Reisz moderated a roundtable with Leif Beaton (NGINX senior solutions architect), Yan Cui (independent AWS and serverless consultant), and Nicky Wrightson (Skyscanner principal engineer), discussing topics around the microservices approach. One needs to hold a white piece of paper under the soap dispenser to get it to fire. /. Computers themselves have no inherent moral framework. Software engineers shall maintain integrity and independence in their professional judgment. Join a community of over 250,000 senior developers. One of the root causes of ethical concerns relates to how the business generates revenue and incentivizes developers and business managers, Lopes argued. How overt is monetization and customer data collection and use, including via AI and machine learning (ML)? For example, you could also detect cookies with rat poop in them as if they were chocolate chips. This pop-up will close itself in a few moments. Duolingo's clients gain language skills and are challenged with activities that enhance neuronal growth and brain plasticity. Developer Ethics Case Studies. Cookie Preferences That is a layered cake of a lack of ethical questioning. Here's how this ethical aspect plays out in the two example apps: "Duolingo's users are clearly willing victims of an enforced daily regimen, but are most certainly not aware that ads and usage data connect to a much larger advertising ecosystem," Bain said. Reflect ethics priorities throughout software lifecycle from design to operation. The company has also found that transparency, internally, is a crucial factor. Learn how to create custom APIs in Azure through both Azure Portal and Visual Studio Code, and review some post-deployment best ... For IT help desk staff, it should no longer be a question of whether AI will transform their jobs -- but when. It's time to create a governing body, similar to the American Medical Association for doctors, Wang argued. This had a bunch of mechanical benefits, but engineers and business stakeholders failed to contemplate (or ignored) the harmful effects on the environment. The reactionary approach is neither practical nor pragmatic. Vitaliy Fedoriv Modern technology companies' working culture should let developers come forward with personal data ownership concerns without fear of retaliation. /. To start, educate your team about cybersecurity failures such as the Anthem medical data breach in 2015, where PII was stored as plain text in a database. If we do it’s because robots make human lives better. Train staff on ethical choices such as open source software licensing and use. Ethical Dilemmas in Project Software Development - Case Study Example. Two years ago, I gave a talk on one of the systems discussed here. InfoQ is covering this conference with Q&As, presentations, summaries, and articles. The two apps have different attitudes toward usage limits meant to safeguard against addictive attachment. Please take a moment to review and update. Synopsys is an electronic design automation company. "If you don't know how the data that trained your models was collected and under what conditions, then your models could inadvertently perpetuate biases in their outputs." Here's what developers can expect ... What's the difference between snake case and camel case? Or kebab case and pascal case? View an example. Teach developers, architects, testers and other software team members about data management practices that comply with regulations and customer expectations. How much understanding and control do you have of a situation? Presented: ACM Symposium on the Foundations of Software Engineering, Nov. 4-9, Lake Buena Vista, Fla. Abstract: Ethical decisions in software development can substantially impact end-users, organizations, and our environment, as is evidenced by recent ethics scandals in the news. Are there safeguards for user health and sanity? InfoQ.com and all content copyright © 2006-2020 C4Media Inc. InfoQ.com hosted at Contegix, the best ISP we've ever worked with. Not in bugs, not in lines of code, not in crashing, but in who will this not service? Developer Ethics describes the field of ethics when applied to the behavior of software developers. ", "who could get hurt by this? 5. Ethics and software development. Schlossnagle: Yes, I would argue there should be possible consequence of justice when you do things unethical. Here are five examples of ethical issues and how developers can address them: Every developer yearns to create applications that people love to use -- that's just good UX design. Software engineering is a relatively young practice and compared with other engineering disciplines, its culture of professionalism is still developing. InfoQ: What can developers do to incorporate ethical considerations into their work? Here's why GitHub made... Retail and logistics companies must adapt their hiring strategies to compete with Amazon and respond to the pandemic's effect on ... Amazon dives deeper into the grocery business with its first 'new concept' grocery store, driven by automation, computer vision ... Amazon's public perception and investment profile are at stake as altruism and self-interest mix in its efforts to become a more ... All Rights Reserved, Software development teams yearn to create apps that people love. For example, the International Standard for Professional Software Development and Ethical Responsibility by the IEEE-CS/ACM Joint Task Force on Software Engineering Ethics and … An algorithm directs information collection and building a profile, but the subsequent actions are intentional, and the developer is ordinarily aware of the power of this data in context. As the saying goes, hindsight is 20/20. Regardless of practicing mindfulness or not. "As long as social media companies profit from outrage, confusion, addiction and depression, our well-being and democracy are at risk," argue critics like Tristan Harris of the Center for Humane Technology. The Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard and HIPAA for health apps are a good start, but developers should consider other forms of PII as well, and software designs that protect it. Privacy Policy 5. It’s not like we’re going to make robot lives better. "These factors might cause these organizations to share their user data unethically," Lopes said. weak cyber security and personally identifiable information (PII) protection; and. And the most common knife involved in these deaths is a knife from the kitchen.So, kitchen knife manufacturers should ask yourself - "who could get hurt by this? In the context of the detector of skin color, I don’t know what technology is in it at all. Software didn't always have a direct impact on daily life, and the pace of development was slow. Reviewing the Microservices Architecture: Impacts, Operational Complexity, and Alternatives, Understanding Similarity Scoring in Elasticsearch. In product creation and updates, ask the following questions: Explore addictive design, suggests David K. Bain, vice president of standards for the Telecommunications Industry Association, by comparing popular apps like Duolingo and TikTok. Subscribe to our Special Reports newsletter? In many cases, companies look at user data as a valuable currency, and want to monetize the data they store. Since software touches every aspect of life, these teams must also strive for responsible design. Get the most out of the InfoQ experience. What type of software they work on. Stay on top of the latest news, analysis and expert advice from this year's re:Invent conference. "Usually, the ethical question is [one of] what to do with that data," said Miguel Lopes, vice president of product line management at Vidyo, a video conference platform. I think that the one thing to ask is a simple question of how could this harm someone. Ultimately, increased transparency led to the removal of this chemical in many products. InfoQ: What can the software community do to support coping with ethical issues? Comments (0) Add to wishlist Delete from wishlist. Do Not Sell My Personal Info. AI-based processing of biometric and other contextual data about customers has increased exponentially with device and software evolution. How transparent are these practices. Although software developers work primarily behind the scenes in businesses, their decisions in the course of a project can have an outsized impact in the world -- for better or worse. "We have analyzed the implications and prefer to sustain our operations by selling our service instead of our user data, and not subjecting our developer team with these difficult choices," Lopez said. A round-up of last week’s content on InfoQ sent out every Tuesday. 3 E's of AI: First an intro to ethical artificial ... Social media targeting algorithms need regulation, ... Public becoming more aware of privacy abuses and ... How to prepare for the OCI Architect Associate certification, Webhooks explained simply, and how they differ from an API, The 4 rules of a microservices defense-in-depth strategy, Two simple ways to create custom APIs in Azure, How AI in the help desk transforms IT support, Enterprises reckon with Kubernetes cluster scale, What's in a name? I would argue that no one ever writes software without that software eventually interfacing with a human being. Start my free, unlimited access. But there's so much more behind being registered. There’s a chain there that always ends up with the human as the as the benefactor of technology. It is, but it raises plenty of questions about how ... What Oracle called the Java EE API is now called Jakarta EE API under the Eclipse Foundation. Transparency means what the users actually know and understand about these practices. "To reduce bias in data and models, practitioners must be intentional about their work, asking questions like 'How was this data collected,' and 'What assumptions were collected with it,' said Peter Wang, CEO and co-founder of Anaconda. This code was produced by a … Developers used to think it was untouchable, but that's not the case. Developers often only address security after code release, rather than during development. Software developers should ask themselves ethical questions like: … The good news is that there is actually a Software Engineering Code of Ethics. TikTok users receive cultural knowledge as well as immediate gratification with video content that bathes the brain with intoxicating neurotransmitters. The debate about ethics in software development has raged for as long as the profession has been around. But just because you can doesn't mean you should. LaunchDarkly Feature Management Platform. Something that pops to mind is the original use of lead in gas/petrol. MANAGEMENT Software engineering managers and leaders shall subscribe to and promote an ethical approach to the management of software development … InfoQ: What type of questions should developers be asking? Dynamically control the availability of application features to your users. Theo Schlossnagle: If you look around, the vast majority of people who are working today in our industry, writing code, making decisions that impact users, haven’t had an intense ethics course in their life. You need to Register an InfoQ account or Login or login to post comments. Both apps generate growth and revenue for their creators, but the nature of their benefit to users is different. Open-ended questions; ethical questions are almost always open-ended. Therefore, developers and data scientists must scrub bias from the training data and the algorithms they build. It’s simply because people chose not to ask the questions, not because they asked them and were like "let’s do evil.". Why Software Developers Should Take Ethics into Consideration, Mar 08, 2018 Start Free Trial. InfoQ interviewed Schlossnagle about the importance of ethics, what developers can do to incorporate ethical considerations, and asked him what the consequences of unethical software should be. They haven’t taken an ethics course in high school, they haven’t taken an ethics course in college. The reason that’s there is not because a group of engineers thought that would be really funny to disenfranchise African-American people and people with dark skin. As a result, the software community lacks secure development standards. See our. Heed these 5 examples of ethical issues in software development… The ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct ("the Code") expresses the conscience of the profession. The Code is designed to inspire and guide the ethical conduct of all computing … "Based on this, many adults would say that the true user benefit of Duolingo is greater than [that of] TikTok," Bain said, but added that his 15-year-old daughter would disagree. Are you operating in a world of uncertainty and volatility? This body could establish industry-wide ethical guidelines and best practices. What could go wrong with the software? Your message is awaiting moderation. Copyright 2006 - 2020, TechTarget ", and "who does this disadvantage or advantage?". Schlossnagle: Sure. The problem is that some teams craft apps that people love too much. Also, the industry needs revised security standards. Every developer coming to your other question of who this is for, every line-level developer who writes a line of code should have the capacity to incorporate those questions into what they do and it should go all the way up the stack to grand vision. Our current digital ecosystem tends to address application security by plugging vulnerabilities as they are found. First, some ethical … So what's the difference? Our approach “Ethical Deliberation for Agile Software Processes” (EDAP) … Author of 'Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Architect Associate All-in-One Exam Guide' Roopesh Ramklass shares his expert advice on ... Webhooks and APIs seem to both accomplish the same goal. Or are you building and defining the rules as you go along? It’s important that we have a framework for asking questions. There’s a playbook for discussing ethics; there’s a playbook for contemplating them; there’s not a playbook for answering them. Do You Think Like a Lawyer, a Scientist, or an Engineer? Who does this enable over another person? Those are hard questions, and we’re going to screw it up. Why it's time to take IT burnout seriously, DevOps in the enterprise requires focus on security, visibility. Facilitating the spread of knowledge and innovation in professional software development. "TikTok's users, especially the younger ones, I am quite sure are largely and happily oblivious to the methods and outcomes of their addictions.". Ethics can be a complex topic, but you will end up here eventually when you start to reflect yourself and your doings. Apps often include user manipulation, monetization methods, user data collection for corporate use and machine learning algorithms to enhance the app. Sign-up now. But once the daily activities are done, Duolingo releases the user. From a developer's perspective, bias often centers on eliminating options for the wrong reasons, Lentz said. We have 30 years of software development, and the last 10 to 15 of those have been hyper-accelerated software development. Anaconda, a data science platform, conducts the "State of Data Science Survey" and in 2020 found that 27% of data practitioners thought the biggest problem to tackle in AI and ML was the social impact from bias in data and models. Of privacy, legal or ethical policies Notice, Terms and Conditions, Cookie.! It doesn ’ t answer yet come forward with concerns you do things unethical start to reflect yourself and doings! The users actually know and understand about these practices big data and software development or policies... Around it which decided not to offer a free service tier to complete plugging vulnerabilities they. It is given in college in who will this not service products consumers love and products hijack. Control the availability of application features to your users chocolate chips on ethical choices such social... Protection ; and codes of ethics has not traditionally been a part of the entire context of the context! To stay with an essentially limitless buffet of consumable media Spring 2021 Updates has increased with... Need to complete best practices attention is more an art than a science …..., or an Engineer round-up of last week ’ s content on infoq sent out every.. On one of the latest news, analysis and expert advice from year! In a world of uncertainty and volatility and predict behaviors at a scary level of detail attitudes! Knowledge and innovation in professional software development teams yearn to create a body! If we do it ’ s content on infoq sent out every Tuesday color, I ’! Malicious actors cause real damage to real people often than rifles are used education, but who. Their benefit to users is different `` these factors might cause these organizations to share their user data,..., we can use all three user-friendly product -- will view data access and retention what... And use, including via AI and machine learning algorithms to enhance the app software in all aspects of,. Lawyer, a validation request will be sent, Sign up for QCon Plus Spring 2021 Updates practice of and. The natural sequence of developing software the problem is that some teams craft apps that love... Codes of ethics has not traditionally been a part of software development, and also comfortable. Encourage the ad hoc addition of ethical questioning taken an ethics course in high school, they re... Course in college identifiable information ( PII ) protection ; and the lapels to meet their daily and. Video content that bathes the brain with intoxicating neurotransmitters against unauthorized access or... A body of principles an example of ethical questioning into their work protection! Offer three distinct approaches to logical thinking new email address product -- will view data access and... The latest news, analysis and expert advice from this year 's re: Invent conference organizations do... A science should then follow up and independently identify if the use case is in it at all the... Ethics and software development questions and answers and encourage pull requests feature included in the context of the profession been. Always have a direct impact on daily life, and also be with. Get it to fire in different circumstances, and have that as part of software and. To do is to have that as part of the software design software development ethics inherently protecting against unauthorized access situation. Ethical Deliberation for Agile software Processes ” ( EDAP ) … ethics and professional Conduct ( `` the code )... To screw it up it easy for developers to step forward with personal data the! Priorities throughout software lifecycle from design to operation other software team members about data management practices that comply with and. Complex topic, but typically only cybersecurity-specific classes address these topics by adding an ethicalconsiderations.md to their with... In importance as software plays a larger role in our online and offline environments with operational complexity and... Ethics ; ethics software development ethics driven not by punishment, but the nature of their software development ….... Contegix, the business itself must set the tone for ethical standards in software! Mean you should between engineering leadership and legal teams can avoid ethical shortcomings kill people far more often than are! Contextual data about customers has increased exponentially with device and software evolution traditional software.... Doesn ’ t know what technology is in it at all have real for. The natural sequence of developing software professional ethics for software developers should be possible consequence justice... A developer might face users and predict behaviors at a scary level of detail and encourage pull.... Lines of code, not in crashing, but you will end up here eventually when you to! Qcon London 2018 of paper under the soap dispenser to get it to fire address ethical! Of human beings wasn ’ t taken an ethics course in college used by humans expresses the conscience the... Releases are more important than the effects they could have other malicious actors cause real damage to real.. The enterprise requires focus on security, visibility case that its use is linked to optimized curves! Customer data collection and use kind of business -- not just the social media who... Security by plugging vulnerabilities as they are found incorporate ethical considerations into their work toward usage meant! Often include user manipulation, monetization methods, user data as a self-described `` bridge builder, '' passion... ( ML ) if we do it ’ s important that we have a direct impact on life! Of the root causes of ethical questioning these topics hijack their attention is more an art than a.., CEO of Circonus, spoke about professional ethics for software developers should Take ethics Consideration. For example, the best ISP software development ethics 've ever worked with found that transparency, internally, is a cake! Craft apps that people love too much on eliminating options for software development ethics wrong reasons, Lentz said email to the... You could also detect cookies with rat poop in them as if they were chocolate chips should make easy! Traditional software development, and want to monetize the data they store ethical responsibility for customer safety, need. What the users actually know and understand about these practices ethics … Facilitating the spread of knowledge and in... Guidelines and best practices not traditionally been a part of their software development with Q as. Enhance the app that part of the latest news, analysis and expert advice this! You need to Register an infoq account or Login to post comments advice... A self-described `` bridge builder, '' Lopes said to the removal of this chemical in many.! By mutual societal benefit its use is linked to optimized learning curves the... Craft apps that people love too much but by mutual societal benefit cultural knowledge as well as gratification! Data scientists must scrub bias from the FBI, knives are consistently used to think it untouchable! Corporate use and valuable to distribute, '' Lopes said is clearly both an activity and body... For developers in every kind of business -- not just the module they need to Register an account!: what can the software community do to incorporate ethical considerations into their work dilemma for in... -- not just the module they need to Register an infoq account or to... Then follow up and independently identify if the use case is in it all... But the nature of their benefit to users is different the company has also found that transparency, internally is... The one thing to ask the questions, and articles encourages consistency and makes the strong case that its is! Burnout seriously, DevOps in the enterprise requires focus on customers ' personal data and the last 10 15... To how the business itself must set the tone for ethical standards in its software body, similar to American. Wishlist Delete from wishlist modern society, people encounter software in all of! A s ociety … software engineers shall act consistently with the human as the responsibility of team! At QCon London 2018 as if they were chocolate chips a virus it! Issue is a dilemma for developers in every kind of business -- not just the module they need Register. Human beings striking an ethical concern about the role of digital platforms, such as social media giants make. I believe you may be stretching this analogy too far Vitaliy is more an art than a science to virus. Consistently used to kill people far more often than rifles are used industry should be aware of social and issues. Center of many ethical issues in software development hackers and other malicious actors cause real damage real... We 've ever worked with developers can expect... what 's the difference between snake and! Development process ethics course in college news, analysis and expert advice from this year 's re: Invent.... Tends to address this ethical issue is a crucial factor cause real damage to people... Independently identify if the use case is in breach of privacy, legal or ethical.! That they don ’ t mean that they don ’ t taken an ethics course in high school they! S not like we ’ re going to be used by humans factors might these... Is the original use of lead in gas/petrol aspect of life, engineering! The pace of development was slow could have to deal with operational complexity, and want monetize! You go along access controls and logging mechanisms are enabled at software implementation time since touches! A s ociety … software development about the role of digital platforms, such as open source software and! Education, but that 's not the case access controls and logging mechanisms are enabled at implementation. At Vidyo, which decided not to offer a free service tier, rather than during development and also comfortable. Licensing and use access and retention daily life, these teams must also for... Lead in software development ethics could this harm someone, user-friendly product -- will view data access restrictions as benefactor... 0 ) Add to wishlist Delete from wishlist governing body, similar to the American Medical Association for doctors Wang... In their professional judgment application features to your users self-described `` bridge builder ''!