It is used as friction modifier. They are also called macromolecules. Now coming to the uses of Bakelite, since this element has a low electrical conductivity and high heat resistance it can be used in manufacturing electrical switches and machine parts of electrical systems. We cannot deny the presence of polymers in our lives. 2. What are the Desirable Properties of Bakelite? 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Some 5,000 years ago, we learned how to make alloys of copper, and the Bronze Age began. When the phenol is taken in excess and the reaction medium is made acidic, the product of the condensation reaction obtained is acidic. The physical, chemical, electrical and thermal properties of Bakelite make it a widely used commercial polymers. (a) Heavily branched cross linked polymers, (b) Linear slightly branched long chain molecules. (Comptt. Examples: Nylon, terylene, Bakelite. Which of the following is a branched polymer, having branched chain polysaccharide units ? It is one of the most common and important polymers that are used to make different parts of many objects. They have been widely used for the production of molded products including billiard balls, laboratory countertops, and as coatings and adhesives. When chemists began to recognize that many natural resins and fibers were polymers, Baekeland investigated the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde. For a more detailed treatment, see Bakelite. Some of the plastic structures are drawn below. In general, the condensation polymer (or) phenolic resin is Bakelite. Your email address will not be published. She contributed to The Spruce for over 11 years.The Spruce Crafts uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. CH 2 O) n. Its chemical name is “polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride”. Bakelite is an example of (a) elastomer (b) fibre (c) thermoplastic (d) thermosetting. Here ethylene (ethene) is the monomer, and the corresponding linear polymer is called high-density polyethylene (HDPE). A polymer (/ ˈ p ɒ l ɪ m ər /; Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a substance or material consisting of very large molecules, or macromolecules, composed of many repeating subunits. The introduction of Bakelitethe worlds first synthetic plasticin 1907 marked the introduction of the Polymer Age. These are one of the oldest polymers that were synthesized by man. All India 2013) Answer: Teflon Monomer Tetrafluoroethylene Type Addition polymer Bakelite Monomer Phenol and Formaldehyde Type Condensation polymer Natural Rubber Monomer Isoprene Bakelite is obtained when Novolac is allowed to undergo cross-linking in the presence of a cross-linking agent. The mechanism: The first step is an nucleophilic aromatic substitution adding formaldehyde to the phenol. At the time, safety and health precautions were not mandatory. Polymers Class 12 MCQs Questions with Answers. Phenolic resins are also extensively used as adhesives and binding agents. Centuries later the Iron Age introduced iron as the material of choice. Bakelite is first made synthetic resin which was used for commercial purposes. Low Density Polyethylene, made from the polymerization of monomer ethylene or ethene units. Phenol is obtained from coal tar, and formaldehyde is obtained from methanol. It is a thermosetting polymer and Bakelite has high strength meaning it basically retains its form even after extensive molding. Bakelite is a condensation polymer of phenol and formaldehyde. These intermediate condensation products are used as resins in different industries. Due to their broad spectrum of properties, both synthetic and natural polymers play essential and ubiquitous roles in everyday life. Bakelite was the first FRP discovered by Dr. Baekeland. Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties, Arrange the following in increasing order of their intermolecular forces : Nylon-6,6 (I), Buna-S (II), Polythene (III), Hose pipe for delivery of petrol at a petrol pump is made up of. Select one: Elastomers O Thermoset Thermoplastic Composite Question 16 Not yet answered Marked out of 1.00 P Flag question The following figure represents Face Centered Cubic structure Select one: True O False To make it stronger and to make more of it, filler such as sawdust is often added. Bakelite B. Melamine C. Branched D. Cross-linked 10.Orientation of monomer units in a polymer molecule A. Tacticity B. Graft C. Linear D. Monomer arrangement 11.A type of polymer wherein the side groups are arranged in an irregular or random manner around the main chain. As such, Bakelite is one of the commercially manufactured polymers that we witness in our daily lives. Answer/Explanation. Required fields are marked *, Bakelite Structure Properties Application. Polyester. For thousands of years, humans used stone to fashion tools. Bakelite Bakelite is one of the earliest commercial plastics. Several synthetic condensation polymers discussed include nylon, kevlar, polyester, Bakelite, Melamine, polycarbonates, polyurethanes, epoxies. It is copolymer and has ester linkage. The cross-linked product of phenol and formaldehyde has the following structure. Bakelite is widely used for making molded products . The ease of molding polymers into different shapes and their relatively low cost of production has been the main reason for their universal usage. Question 1. Write the monomers of the following polymers and classify them as addition or condensation polymers : Teflon, Bakelite and Natural Rubber. The chemical formula of bakelite can be written as (C6H6O-CH2OH)n. Some important properties of bakelite are listed below. Bakelite was particularly suitable for the emerging electrical and automobile industries because of its extraordinarily high resistance to electricity, heat, and chemical action. Bakelite is a thermosetting resin; a polymer formed by the reaction of phenol and formaldehyde. The preparation of bakelite involves several steps, as illustrated below. Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. B Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. Answer We are surrounded by objects, most of which, some way or the other have a polymer associated with them. (c) Become infusible on moulding so cannot be reused. Before it has set, the resin can be cast in a mould; once set, it is hard enough to be drilled, and does not soften again or … Further, Bakelite has been used for making the handles of a variety of utensils. Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. Reaction between acetone and methyl magnesium chloride followed by hydrolysis will give : Identify the correct statements from the following: Which of the following set of molecules will have zero dipole moment ? A substance which has a molecular structure built completely from a large number of similar units bonded together known as polymers. What is Bakelite? An early compound that is made of mixture of phenol-formaldehyde is Bakelite. In Wolff‐Kishner reduction, the carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones is converted into. Bakelite is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, developed in 1907–1909 by Belgian chemist Dr. Leo Baekeland. Common polymers and their uses are: Bakelite. Bakelite is a space-network polymer. Bakelite is a condensation polymer of formaldehyde and phenol. Very smooth molding can be obtained from this polymer. Polyamide. Whereas, when the quantity of formaldehyde taken is more than that of phenol in the reacting mixture, and the reaction occurs in a basic medium, the condensation product is known as Resol. The monomers used are lactic acid and glycolic acid. Plastic: All the plastic materials are organic polymers with a repeating unit called monomer. Given that the ionic product of $Ni(OH)_2$ is $2 \times 10^{-15}$. Used as the basis for Bakelite, PFs were the first commercial synthetic resins (plastics). One of the first plastics made from synthetic components, Bakelite was used for its electrical nonconductivity and heat-resistant properties in electrical insulators , radio and telephone casings and such diverse products as kitchenware , jewelry , pipe stems, children's toys , and … Owing to its low electrical conductivity, bakelite is resistant to electric current. They are also resistant to several destructive solvents. We are surrounded by objects, most of which, some way or the other have a polymer associated with them. Polymers has high molecular mass. Bakelite is a condensation polymer of phenol (C 6 H 5 O H) and formaldehyde (HCHO). Bakelite moldings are heat-resistant and scratch-resistant. Bakelite is also known as phenol formaldehyde resin and it is a type of condensation polymer. Answer: Explaination: (a) and (c) e.g. Bakelite, formed from the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde, became hugely popular – perhaps you have seen products with Bakelite, such as … Overview of Structure Of Bakelite. Consider the weight of a piece of plastic jewelry. In practice, the phenol and formaldehyde are first polymerized to a small extent by using the proper choice of catalyst and temperature. Initial methods of preparing bakelite involved the heating of formaldehyde and phenol in the presence of one of the following catalysts -zinc chloride (ZnCl2), hydrochloric acid (HCl), or ammonia (NH3). A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived from coal tar and wood alcohol (methanol), respectively, at that time. Bakelite is used for making electrical switches and switch boards. The repeating structural unit of most simple polymers not only reflects the monomer(s) from which the polymers are constructed, but also provides a concise means for drawing structures to represent these macromolecules. When made with this procedure, it is often an amber clear solid. B) The polymer has alternating double and single bonds between carbons, while the monomer has only single bonds between carbons. The Þrst synthetic thermoset polymer (a phenol-formaldehyde (PF)), known as Bakelite, was obtained in 1907 by Baekeland through the polycondensation of phenol with formaldehyde. Bakelite was invented in the early twentieth century but it is an important topic of study even in this 21st century. HDPE is composed of macromolecules in which n ranges from 10,000 to … Bakelite is a condensation polymer of phenol and formaldehyde. This phenol-formaldehyde resin is a thermosetting polymer. In general, phenol taken in excess acts as the cross-linking agent. The first synthetic polymer, a phenol-formaldehyde polymer, was introduced under the name “Bakelite Bakelite was originally used to make billiard balls. (d) Soften on heating and harden on cooling, can be reused. It is added to lubricants to reduce surface friction. There are two types of Condensation polymers: 1. Synthetic condensation polymers have a wide array of household, industrial, commercial, and medical uses and applications. Join BYJU’S or download our app to know more about polymers with the most simplified approach of learning. The atomic radiusis: Find out the solubility of $Ni(OH)_2$ in 0.1 M NaOH. Bakelite was commercialized in 1909Ð1910 [3]. The characteristics of Bakelite made it particularly suitable as a molding compound, an adhesive or binding agent, a varnish, and a protective coating. Condensation polymers are formed by the combination of monomers with the elimination of simple molecules such as H 2 O or CH 3 OH. Which of the following is an example of thermosetting polymers? Bakelite is one of the earliest synthetic polymers. Dextron is a polyacetic acid polyglycolic acid polymer. On electrolysis of dil.sulphuric acid using Platinum (Pt) electrode, the product obtained at anode will be: An element has a body centered cubic (bcc) structure with a cell edge of 288 pm. Phenol is made to react with formaldehyde. Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. 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